In vitro biomechanical comparison of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis techniques: prototype equine spoon plate versus axially positioned dynamic compression plate and two abaxial transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion
OBJECTIVES: To compare in vitro monotonic biomechanical properties of an equine spoon plate (ESP) with an axial 3-hole, 4.5 mm narrow dynamic compression plate (DCP) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws (DCP-TLS) inserted in lag fashion for equine proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis. STUDY DESIGN: Paired in vitro biomechanical testing of 2 methods of stabilizing cadaveric adult equine forelimb PIP joints. ANIMAL POPULATION: Cadaveric adult equine forelimbs (n=18 pairs). METHODS: For each forelimb pair, 1 PIP joint was stabilized with an ESP (8 hole, 4.5 mm) and 1 with an axial 3-hole narrow DCP (4.5 mm) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion. Six matching pairs of constructs were tested in single cycle to failure under axial compression with load applied under displacement control at a constant rate of 5 cm/s. Six construct pairs were tested for cyclic fatigue under axial compression with cyclic load (0-7.5 kN) applied at 6 Hz; cycles to failure were recorded. Six construct pairs were tested in single cycle to failure under torsional loading applied at a constant displacement rate (0.17 radians/s) until rotation of 0.87 radians occurred. Mean values for each fixation method were compared using a paired t-test within each group with statistical significance set at P<.05. RESULTS: Mean yield load, yield stiffness, and failure load for ESP fixation were significantly greater (for axial compression and torsion) than for DCP-TLS fixation. Mean (+/- SD) values for the ESP and DCP-TLS fixation techniques, respectively, in single cycle to failure under axial compression were: yield load 123.9 +/- 8.96 and 28.5 +/- 3.32 kN; stiffness, 13.11 +/- 0.242 and 2.60 +/- 0.17 kN/cm; and failure load, 144.4 +/- 13.6 and 31.4 +/- 3.8 kN. In single cycle to failure under torsion, mean (+/- SD) values for ESP and DCP-TLS, respectively, were: stiffness 2,022 +/- 26.2 and 107.9 +/- 11.1 N m/rad; and failure load: 256.4 +/- 39.2 and 87.1 +/- 11.5 N m. Mean cycles to failure in axial compression of ESP fixation (622,529 +/- 65,468) was significantly greater than DCP-TLS (95,418 +/- 11,037). CONCLUSION: ESP was superior to an axial 3-hole narrow DCP with 2 abaxial transarticular screws inserted in lag fashion in resisting static overload forces and cyclic fatigue. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In vitro results support further evaluation of ESP for PIP joint arthrodesis in horses. Its specific design may provide increased stability without need for external coaptation support.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Veterinary surgery : VS
Sod, G. A., Mitchell, C. F., Hubert, J. D., Martin, G. S., & Gill, M. S. (2007). In vitro biomechanical comparison of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis techniques: prototype equine spoon plate versus axially positioned dynamic compression plate and two abaxial transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion. Veterinary surgery : VS, 36 (8), 792-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.2007.00338.x