The objective of this research study is to design, fabricate, and characterize multifunctional high strength and self-sensing braided cables and structures using novel Fe-based shape memory alloys (SMAs). The system exploits unique properties of recently developed low-cost super-elastic FeMnAlNi SMAs, which enables excellent super-elastic properties, high strength, and self-sensing in structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. This novel material technology can be coupled with modeling efforts that allow for accurate prediction of both the materials and structural response during sensing. At the conclusion of the project, we have demonstrated that with careful design of processing parameters, it is possible to control the yield strength and superleastic properties of FeMnAlNi SMAs. We have fabricated, for the first time in the world, a large diameter wires and bars from these inexpensive iron based SMAs which are expected to help with scaling up the fabrication of these materials. In addition, we were able to develop a method for fabricating braided cables from the fabricated Fe-SMA wires and a lab scale experimental setup has been designed and built. Prototype design for the braiding weave was created and tested. Finally, an experimental setup has been designed and manufactured to measure changes in the magnetic response of the SMA braided cables under load in order to directly correlate the magnetic response with deflection and strain. Clearly, the successful fabrication of wires and braided cables of the inexpensive iron based SMAs with superelastic strains comparable to nickel-titanium SMAs and with favorable magnetic sensing capabilities have significant implications for transportation infrastructure as these materials can provide structural health monitoring capability while also mitigating large shape changes during natural disasters. Future work needs to focus on revealing the coupling between mechanical properties (in particular damage) and the changes in magnetic properties in order to provide guidance on how these materials can be utilized in structural health monitoring.
Karaman, I., & Hartl, D. (2018). Integrated Health Monitoring and Reinforcement of Transportation Structures with Optimized Low-Cost Multifunctional Braided Cables. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/transet_pubs/28