Faculty PublicationsCopyright (c) 2021 Louisiana State University All rights reserved.
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs
Recent documents in Faculty Publicationsen-usSat, 27 Mar 2021 02:47:15 PDT3600Quasinormal modes and their overtones at the common horizon in a binary black hole merger
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/9
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/9Thu, 25 Mar 2021 10:05:30 PDT
It is expected that all astrophysical black holes in equilibrium are well described by the Kerr solution. Moreover, any black hole far away from equilibrium, such as one initially formed in a compact binary merger or by the collapse of a massive star, will eventually reach a final equilibrium Kerr state. At sufficiently late times in this process of reaching equilibrium, we expect that the black hole is modeled as a perturbation around the final state. The emitted gravitational waves will then be damped sinusoids with frequencies and damping times given by the quasinormal mode spectrum of the final Kerr black hole. An observational test of this scenario, often referred to as black hole spectroscopy, is one of the major goals of gravitational wave astronomy. It was recently suggested that the quasinormal mode description including the higher overtones might hold even right after the remnant black hole is first formed. At these times, the black hole is expected to be highly dynamical and nonlinear effects are likely to be important. In this paper we investigate this remarkable scenario in terms of the horizon dynamics. Working with high accuracy simulations of a simple configuration, namely the head-on collision of two nonspinning black holes with unequal masses, we study the dynamics of the final common horizon in terms of its shear and its multipole moments. We show that they are indeed well described by a superposition of ringdown modes as long as a sufficiently large number of higher overtones are included. This description holds even for the highly dynamical final black hole shortly after its formation. We discuss the implications and caveats of this result for black hole spectroscopy and for our understanding of the approach to equilibrium.
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Pierre Mourier et al.Identification of a Local Sample of Gamma-Ray Bursts Consistent with a Magnetar Giant Flare Origin
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/8
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/8Fri, 26 Feb 2021 07:53:12 PST
Cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are known to arise from distinct progenitor channels: short GRBs mostly from neutron star mergers and long GRBs from a rare type of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) called collapsars. Highly magnetized neutron stars called magnetars also generate energetic, short-duration gamma-ray transients called magnetar giant flares (MGFs). Three have been observed from the Milky Way and its satellite galaxies, and they have long been suspected to constitute a third class of extragalactic GRBs. We report the unambiguous identification of a distinct population of four local (<5 Mpc) short GRBs, adding GRB 070222 to previously discussed events. While identified solely based on alignment with nearby star-forming galaxies, their rise time and isotropic energy release are independently inconsistent with the larger short GRB population at >99.9% confidence. These properties, the host galaxies, and nondetection in gravitational waves all point to an extragalactic MGF origin. Despite the small sample, the inferred volumetric rates for events above 4 x 10(44) erg of R-MGF = 3.8(-3.1)(+4.0) x 10(5) Gpc(-3) yr(-1) make MGFs the dominant gamma-ray transient detected from extragalactic sources. As previously suggested, these rates imply that some magnetars produce multiple MGFs, providing a source of repeating GRBs. The rates and host galaxies favor common CCSN as key progenitors of magnetars.
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E. Burns et al.A coded aperture microscope for X-ray fluorescence full-field imaging
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/7
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/7Mon, 04 Jan 2021 10:25:07 PST
The design and construction of an instrument for full-field imaging of the X-ray fluorescence emitted by a fully illuminated sample are presented. The aim is to produce an X-ray microscope with a few micrometers spatial resolution, which does not need to scan the sample. Since the fluorescence from a spatially inhomogeneous sample may contain many fluorescence lines, the optic which will provide the magnification of the emissions must be achromatic, i.e. its optical properties must be energy-independent. The only optics which fulfill this requirement in the X-ray regime are mirrors and pinholes. The throughput of a simple pinhole is very low, so the concept of coded apertures is an attractive extension which improves the throughput by having many pinholes, and retains the achromatic property. Modified uniformly redundant arrays (MURAs) with 10 mu m openings and 50% open area have been fabricated using gold in a lithographic technique, fabricated on a 1 mu m-thick silicon nitride membrane. The gold is 25 mu m thick, offering good contrast up to 20keV. The silicon nitride is transparent down into the soft X-ray region. MURAs with various orders, from 19 up to 73, as well as their respective negative (a mask where open and closed positions are inversed compared with the original mask), have been made. Having both signs of mask will reduce near-field artifacts and make it possible to correct for any lack of contrast.
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D. P. Siddons et al.Demonstration of dynamic thermal compensation for parametric instability suppression in Advanced LIGO
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/6
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/6Fri, 06 Nov 2020 09:55:08 PST
Advanced LIGO and other ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors use high laser power to minimize shot noise and suspended optics to reduce seismic noise coupling. This can result in an opto-mechanical coupling which can become unstable and saturate the interferometer control systems. The severity of these parametric instabilities scales with circulating laser power and first hindered LIGO operations in 2014. Static thermal tuning and active electrostatic damping have previously been used to control parametric instabilities at lower powers but are insufficient as power is increased. Here we report the first demonstration of dynamic thermal compensation to avoid parametric instability in an Advanced LIGO detector. Annular ring heaters that compensate central heating are used to tune the optical mode away from multiple problematic mirror resonance frequencies. We develop a single-cavity approximation model to simulate the optical beat note frequency during the central heating and ring heating transient. An experiment of dynamic ring heater tuning at the LIGO Livingston detector was carried out at 170 kW circulating power and, in agreement with our model, the third order optical beat note is controlled to avoid instability of the 15 and 15.5 kHz mechanical modes. We project that dynamic thermal compensation with ring heater input conditioning can be used in parallel with acoustic mode dampers to control the optical mode transient and avoid parametric instability of these modes up to Advanced LIGO's design circulating power of 750 kW. The experiment also demonstrates the use of three mode interaction monitoring as a sensor of the cavity geometry, used to maintain theg-factor product tog(1)g(2)= 0.829 +/- 0.004.
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T. Hardwick et al.Quantum Backaction Cancellation in the Audio Band
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/5
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/5Mon, 26 Oct 2020 07:50:37 PDT
We report on the cancellation of quantum backaction noise in an optomechanical cavity. We perform measurements of the displacement of the microresonator, one in reflection of the cavity and one in transmission of the cavity. We show that measuring the amplitude quadrature of the light transmitted by the optomechanical cavity allows us to cancel the backaction noise between 2 and 50 kHz as a consequence of the strong optical spring present in the detuned cavity. This cancellation yields a more sensitive measurement of the microresonator's position with a 2 dB increase in sensitivity. To confirm that the backaction is eliminated, we measure the noise in the transmission signal as a function of circulating power and use a correlation technique between two photodetectors to remove shot noise. Remaining backaction noise would be observable as a power-dependent noise floor, which is not observed. Eliminating the effects of backaction in this frequency regime is an important demonstration of a technique that could be used to mitigate the effects of backaction in interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO, VIRGO, and KAGRA.
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Jonathan Cripe et al.Modifications to gravitational wave equation from canonical quantum gravity
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/4
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/4Sat, 24 Oct 2020 13:26:12 PDT
It is expected that the quantum nature of spacetime leaves its imprint in all semiclassical gravitational systems, at least in certain regimes, including gravitational waves. In this paper we investigate such imprints on gravitational waves within a specific framework: space is assumed to be discrete (in the form of a regular cubic lattice), and this discrete geometry is quantised following Dirac's canonical quantisation scheme. The semiclassical behavior is then extracted by promoting the expectation value of the Hamiltonian operator on a semiclassical state to an effective Hamiltonian. Considering a family of semiclassical states representing small tensor perturbations to Minkowski background, we derive a quantum-corrected effective wave equation. The deviations from the classical gravitational wave equation are found to be encoded in a modified dispersion relation and controlled by the discreteness parameter of the underlying lattice. For finite discretisations, several interesting effects appear: we investigate the thermodynamical properties of these modified gravitons and, under certain assumptions, derive the tensor power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. The latter is found to deviate from the classical prediction, in that an amplification of UV modes takes place. We discuss under what circumstances such effect can be in agreement with observations.
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Andrea Dapor et al.Noise resilience of variational quantum compiling
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/3
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/3Sat, 17 Oct 2020 09:43:53 PDT
Variational hybrid quantum-classical algorithms (VHQCAs) are near-term algorithms that leverage classical optimization to minimize a cost function, which is efficiently evaluated on a quantum computer. Recently VHQCAs have been proposed for quantum compiling, where a target unitary U is compiled into a short-depth gate sequence V. In this work, we report on a surprising form of noise resilience for these algorithms. Namely, we find one often learns the correct gate sequence V (i.e. the correct variational parameters) despite various sources of incoherent noise acting during the cost-evaluation circuit. Our main results are rigorous theorems stating that the optimal variational parameters are unaffected by a broad class of noise models, such as measurement noise, gate noise, and Pauli channel noise. Furthermore, our numerical implementations on IBM's noisy simulator demonstrate resilience when compiling the quantum Fourier transform, Toffoli gate, and W-state preparation. Hence, variational quantum compiling, due to its robustness, could be practically useful for noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices. Finally, we speculate that this noise resilience may be a general phenomenon that applies to other VHQCAs such as the variational quantum eigensolver.
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Kunal Sharma et al.Expectation values of coherent states for SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theories
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/2
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/2Fri, 02 Oct 2020 09:27:44 PDT
This article investigates properties of semiclassical Gauge Field Theory Coherent States for general quantum gauge theories. Useful, e.g., for the canonical formulation of Lattice Gauge Theories these states are labelled by a point in the classical phase space and constructed such that the expectation values of the canonical operators are sharply peaked on said phase space point. For the case of the non-abelian gauge group SU(2), we will explicitly compute the expectation value of general polynomials including the first order quantum corrections. This allows asking more precise questions about the quantum fluctuations of any given semiclassical system.
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Klaus Liegener et al.High-harmonic spectroscopy of transient two-center interference calculated with time-dependent density-functional theory
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/1
https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/physics_astronomy_pubs/1Wed, 08 Jan 2020 11:45:06 PST
We demonstrate high-harmonic spectroscopy in many-electron molecules using time-dependent density-functional theory. We show that a weak attosecond-pulse-train ionization seed that is properly synchronized with the strong driving mid-infrared laser field can produce experimentally relevant high-harmonic generation (HHG) signals, from which we extract both the spectral amplitude and the target-specific phase (group delay). We also show that further processing of the HHG signal can be used to achieve molecular-frame resolution, i.e., to resolve the contributions from rescattering on different sides of an oriented molecule. In this framework, we investigate transient two-center interference in CO2 and OCS, and how subcycle polarization effects shape the oriented/aligned angle-resolved spectra. (C) 2019 Author(s).
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Francois Mauger et al.