Energy spectra of cosmic rays above 1 TeV per nucleon
Direct measurements of cosmic-ray nuclei above 1 TeV per nucleon have been performed in a series of balloon-borne experiments with emulsion chambers. The observed all-particle spectrum above 20 TeV is consistent with the results of the Proton satellite and many air shower experiments. The proton spectrum is consistent with a power law having an index of 2.76 ± 0.09 up to at least 100 TeV, but an overabundance of helium by a factor of 2 above 2 TeV per nucleon is found when compared with the extrapolation from the low energies. For heavy elements (C through Fe), the intensities around 1 TeV per nucleon are consistent, within the statistical errors, with the extrapolation from lower energy data using the Spacelab 2 spectral indices. An enhancement for the medium-heavy components (C through Ca) above 200 TeV is indicated. The mean mass above 50 TeV indicates slightly higher values than the results of the air shower experiments.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Burnett, T., Dake, S., Derrickson, J., Fountain, W., Fuki, M., Gregory, J., Hayashi, T., Holynski, R., Iwai, J., Jones, W., Jurak, A., Lord, J., Miyamura, O., Oda, H., Ogata, T., Parnell, T., Roberts, F., Strausz, S., Tabuki, T., Takahashi, Y., Tominaga, T., Watts, J., Wefel, J., Wilczynska, B., Wilczynski, H., Wilkes, R., Wolter, W., & Wosiek, B. (1990). Energy spectra of cosmic rays above 1 TeV per nucleon. Astrophysical Journal, 349 (1 PART 2) https://doi.org/10.1086/185642