Aidan F. Brooks, California Institute of Technology
Gabriele Vajente, California Institute of Technology
Hiro Yamamoto, California Institute of Technology
Rich Abbott, California Institute of Technology
Carl Adams, LIGO Livingston
Rana X. Adhikari, California Institute of Technology
Alena Ananyeva, California Institute of Technology
Stephen Appert, California Institute of Technology
Koji Arai, California Institute of Technology
Joseph S. Areeda, California State University, Fullerton
Yasmeen Asali, Columbia University
Stuart M. Aston, LIGO Livingston
Corey Austin, Louisiana State University
Anne M. Baer, Christopher Newport University
Matthew Ball, University of Oregon
Stefan W. Ballmer, Syracuse University
Sharan Banagiri, University of Minnesota Twin Cities
David Barker, LIGO Hanford
Lisa Barsotti, LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Jeffrey Bartlett, LIGO Hanford
Beverly K. Berger, Stanford University
Joseph Betzwieser, LIGO Livingston
Dripta Bhattacharjee, Missouri University of Science and Technology
Garilynn Billingsley, California Institute of Technology
Sebastien Biscans, California Institute of Technology
Carl D. Blair, LIGO Livingston
Ryan M. Blair, LIGO Hanford
Nina Bode, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute)
Phillip Booker, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute)
Rolf Bork, California Institute of Technology
Alyssa Bramley, LIGO Livingston
Daniel D. Brown, The University of Adelaide
Aaron Buikema, LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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Small, highly absorbing points are randomly present on the surfaces of the main interferometer optics in Advanced LIGO. The resulting nanometer scale thermo-elastic deformations and substrate lenses from these micron-scale absorbers significantly reduce the sensitivity of the interferometer directly though a reduction in the power-recycling gain and indirect interactions with the feedback control system. We review the expected surface deformation from point absorbers and provide a pedagogical description of the impact on power buildup in second generation gravitational wave detectors (dual-recycled Fabry–Perot Michelson interferometers). This analysis predicts that the power-dependent reduction in interferometer performance will significantly degrade maximum stored power by up to 50% and, hence, limit GW sensitivity, but it suggests system wide corrections that can be implemented in current and future GW detectors. This is particularly pressing given that future GW detectors call for an order of magnitude more stored power than currently used in Advanced LIGO in Observing Run 3. We briefly review strategies to mitigate the effects of point absorbers in current and future GW wave detectors to maximize the success of these enterprises.

Publication Source (Journal or Book title)

Applied Optics

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