Master of Arts (MA)
Smoking cessation leads to greater weight gain in women than men, and older and postmenopausal women are at greater risk for weight gain than younger, premenopausal women. African-American postmenopausal women may be at the greatest risk. Weight gain after smoking cessation is primarily due to increased caloric intake. Currently, the literature regarding measurement of macronutrient intake after smoking cessation is plagued with methodological problems. The Geiselman Macronutrient Self-Selection Paradigm (MSSP) significantly and systematically varies fat across other macronutrients and the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ) measures the negative feedback of satiation via pre- and postprandial hedonic ratings of foods. Fifty-five Caucasian and 32 African-American postmenopausal women were recruited for the present study. We measured changes in total caloric intake, and specific macronutrient intake with the use of the MSSP, and we measured hedonic ratings with the use of the FPQ before and after smoking cessation. We hypothesized that total caloric intake and intake of high-fat foods would increase postcessation. Also, we hypothesized that women would be able to reach satiation more readily while smoking than they would postcessation. We found that Caucasian females increased total caloric intake and intake of high-fat foods after smoking cessation; however, their level of satiation did not change from pre- to postcessation. Thus, the Caucasian women had to ingest significantly more total kcals, especially from high-fat foods, postcessation to achieve the same level of satiation that they reached with much smaller amount of food while still smoking. Total caloric intake, including intake of high-fat foods, did not differ from pre- to postcessation in African-American females. African-American women ingested significantly more total kcals and intake of high-fat foods than did Caucasian females, regardless of smoking status. African-American women also showed significantly smaller decreases in hedonic ratings of high-fat foods from pre- to postprandial than did Caucasian women, indicating less satiating effect of high-fat foods in the African-American females.
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Manning, Amanda K., "The effects of smoking cessation on control of food intake in postmenopausal African-American and Caucasian women" (2007). LSU Master's Theses. 549.