Semester of Graduation

Summer 2020


Master of Science (MS)


Nutrition and Food Science

Document Type



Dietary fiber may help reduce LDL cholesterol levels and prevent cardiovascular diseases. The US-FDA recommends 14g of fiber/1000kcal consumed, but Americans consume <14g of dietary fiber/day. A product containing ≥5 grams of fiber/serving can be claimed as a high-fiber product. Adding dietary fiber to food affects their physicochemical properties and sensory quality, possibly leading to less product acceptability. This study was performed to assess selected physicochemical properties and consumer perception of “high-fiber” Belgian waffles. Waffles were formulated to have fiber contents of <0.5g (control), 5g, 10g, or 15g/serving. Color (L*a*b*) and texture profile (TPA) were measured. Millennial consumers (N=120) rated liking of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor, and overall liking (OL) [a 9-points hedonic scale]; brown-color, softness, and stickiness [a 3-points just-about-right (JAR) scale]; purchase intent (PI) [yes/no]. They selected product-elicited-emotions [check-all-that-apply]. OL and PI were evaluated both before and after providing a “high-fiber-health-claim” (HFHC). Data were analyzed (α=0.05) with ANOVA, McNemar, Cochran’s Q with multiple pairwise-comparison-critical difference, and penalty analysis. As fiber addition generally made the product lighter-yellow (higher L* and b*), 54% of consumers rated brown-color to be [Not Enough] on a JAR scale for the 15g-fiber/serving product. At 15g fiber/serving, waffles became significantly less cohesive and chewy (from TPA) and chewier (from JAR); however, the texture liking score did not significantly decrease compared to the 1g-fiber/serving product (5.8 vs. 6.0). After providing HFHC, all “high-fiber” samples outperformed the control, with OL scores of 6.4-6.7 vs. 5.7, and positive PI of 61-69% vs. 45%. All products generated more positive (44.1-36.2%) than negative emotions. Consumers may be more willing to consume and buy high-fiber products that are commonly consumed, like waffles. This study demonstrated that although added-fiber physically affected color and texture of waffles, the high-fiber products were acceptable to consumers. Providing HFHC clearly increased PI and should be included on a product label to promote PI.

Committee Chair

Dr. Witoon Prinyawiwatkul

Available for download on Friday, June 11, 2021