Master of Science (MS)
Electrical and Computer Engineering
In image processing operations, each pixel is often treated independently and operated upon by using values of other pixels in the neighborhood. These operations are often called windowed image computations (or neighborhood operations). In this thesis, we examine the implementation of a windowed computation pipeline in an FPGA-based environment. Typically, the image is generated outside the FPGA environment (such as through a camera) and the result of the windowed computation is consumed outside the FPGA environment (for example, in a screen for display or an engine for higher level analysis). The image is typically large (over a million pixels 1000×1000 image) and the FPGA input-output (I/O) infrastructure is quite modest in comparison (typically a few hundred pins). Consequently, the image is brought into the chip a small piece (tile) at a time. We define a handshaking scheme that allows us to construct an FPGA architecture without making large assumptions about component speeds and synchronization. We define a pipeline architecture for windowed computations, including details of a stage to accommodate FPGA pin-limitation and bounded storage. We implement a design to better suit FPGAs where it ensures a smoother (stall-resistant) flow of the computation in the pipeline. Based on the architecture proposed, we have analytically predicted resource usage in the FPGA. In particular, we have shown that for an N×N image processed as n×n tiles on a z-stage windowed computation with parameter w; θ(n^2+logN+logz ) pins are used and θ(n^2 z) memory is used. We ran simulations that validated these predictions on two FPGAs (Artix-7 and Kintex-7) with different resources. As we had predicted, the pins and distributed memory turned out to be the most used resources. Our simulations have also shown that the operating clock speed of the design is relatively independent of the number of stages in the pipeline; this is in line with what was expected with the handshaking scheme that isolates the timing of communicating modules. Our work, although aimed at FPGAs, could also be applied to any I/O pin-limited devices and memory limited environments.
Document Availability at the Time of Submission
Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.
Vijaya Varma, Aswin, "A Study of FPGA Resource Utilization for Pipelined Windowed Image Computations" (2016). LSU Master's Theses. 3086.