Master of Science (MS)
School of Nutrition and Food Sciences
High sodium intake has negative health implications on hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Brines used in chicken marination are composed of salt (NaCl), phosphates and seasonings. Potassium chloride (KCl) is the most common sodium replacer but its use is typically limited to less than 50% substitution due to its undesirable bitterness and metallic aftertaste. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 5’ adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and glycine, as bitterness blockers, on physicochemical, sensory characteristics and purchase intent of sodium reduced chicken breast fillets. Chicken breast was injected with a 20% pick-up solution. Salt treatments (trts) were 50, 75 and/or 100% KCl substitutions with two levels of glycine (0.1 and 0.2%) and two levels of AMP (0.01 and 0.02%) based on the solution weight. Replacing NaCl by KCl at levels of 50-100% did not have a significant effect on sensory acceptability (aroma, flavor, juiciness, tenderness, bitterness, saltiness and overall liking), physicochemical traits (water holding capacity, and moisture) and positive emotions (good, happy, pleased and satisfied). Negative emotions (unsafe, worried and guilty) showed significant differences after sodium nutrient content claim per product had been presented, decreasing significantly in trts with 75 and 100% NaCl substitution. Overall liking and “satisfied” emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (Overall liking odds ratio= 2.5 to 4.2; satisfied odds ratio 2.26 to 2.35). JAR results showed all treatments were considered “not salty enough” reflected by the low liking scores (neither like nor dislike and/or like slightly). A reduction of 75 to 100% NaCl significantly decreased tenderness when measured instrumentally. Initial pH values were significantly more acidic for breasts before injection (P< 0.05). A lower level of glycine and AMP caused significantly higher pH values but they were still in a normal range. In conclusion, it was feasible to reduce sodium in chicken breast marination, taking into account sensory and physicochemical parameters, using KCl levels from 50 to 100% salt substitution with the use of bitterness blockers in concentrations of 0.01 and 0.02% of the injected solution.
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Ocampo Arriaga, Ana Gabriela, "Effect of Bitterness Blockers in Partial and Complete Replacement of Sodium Chloride with Potassium Chloride on the Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Marinated Chicken Breast Fillets" (2016). LSU Master's Theses. 2926.