Master of Arts (MA)



Document Type



Two experiments were conducted to explore whether a picture superiority effect exists in source memory. To investigate this issue, participants studied a mixed list of pictures and words. Experiment 1 tested people's memory for an organizational source where half the pictures and words were studied on the left or right side of a computer monitor. In Experiment 2 an associative source was tested. During encoding half of the pictures and words were associated with a female voice and the other half with a male voice. At test, participants' memory for the location or voice of the pictures and words was assessed. On the memory test each participant saw half of the items represented in the same format (picture/word) they studied and the other half were shown in the other format. The results showed the typical picture superiority in item recognition; however, this effect was only found in source memory for the organizational source. There was also evidence that source memory is better when the study and test formats matched, but this effect of format was not found in item recognition. These results indicate that some manipulations may affect item recognition and source memory differentially.



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Committee Chair

Jason Hicks

Included in

Psychology Commons