Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

First Advisor

John Irwin Fischer


The on-going comparison of the sister arts (poetry and painting) in the eighteenth century recommends a reassessment of Francis Hayman's role as an artist reading and interpreting literary texts. A founding member of the Royal Academy in 1768, Francis Hayman began his artistic career as a scene painter at the Goodman's Fields and Drury Lane theaters. Although Hayman was one of the most prolific book illustrators in mid eighteenth century Britain, relatively little critical attention has been devoted to his work. Moreover, his circle of friends included such Old Slaughter's and St. Martin's Lane Academy regulars as Henry Fielding, William Hogarth, David Garrick, Hubert Gravelot, Martin Folkes, and the young Thomas Gainsborough. Yet his illustrations in the 1740s for Samuel Richardson's Pamela, Thomas Hammer's elaborate quarto edition of Shakespeare, Thomas Newton's Paradise Lost, and Moore and Brooke's Fables for the Female Sex provide a rich critical resource because they offer visual commentary on the texts of which they are a part. Taken together, Hayman's designs compose an editorial apparatus that recommends a rethinking of critical methods that do not account for illustrations.