Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Petra Munro


This qualitative study centers on education for citizenship, a topic which is explored through an analysis of case studies of seven participants who were members of Students Against Driving Drunk (SADD) in high school. Data was collected in two phases. The first phase occurred between September of 1988 and May of 1991. During this period, the researcher was a participant-observer and conducted individual and group interviews with members. Phase two took place in 1995, with follow-up interviews being conducted with seven former members who served as key informants for the study. The primary research questions addressed in this study are: (1) What meanings did the participants give to their experiences in SADD? (2) What are the implications of those meanings for social education? While the questions focused specifically on the participants' experiences in SADD, their experiences in other aspects of their lives also contributed to their understandings of citizenship. While SADD is an extracurricular organization, the analysis of the case studies revealed several salient points for reconceiving citizenship as a curricular goal. Explored in this study are notions concerning abstract ideals and concrete experiences, universal and particular (contextual) understandings, and plurality in terms of common values and difference. The analysis features discussions focusing primarily on the processes and purposes of citizenship and the way in which these relate to the social education of students.