Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
E. Jane Luzar
This study utilized cross-sectional data obtained from the 1991 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation to analyze the expenditures and consumption of nonconsumptive wildlife related recreation in the Lower Mississippi Valley Ecosystem area. In the process of selecting an appropriate model most consistent with individuals' consumption behavior associated with nonconsumptive wildlife related recreation, the tobit model and the double-hurdle model for both the primary nonresidential and residential expenditure models were evaluated. Based on the Lagrange multiplier test and the likelihood ratio test results, the double-hurdle model fit the data much better than the tobit model. The hypothesis that there are heteroscedastic problems associated with the error terms was rejected based on the likelihood ratio test result. In the primary nonresidential expenditure model, income, education, ethnicity, public lands, and forest lands had a significant effect on nonconsumptive wildlife related recreation expenditures. The total consumption was predicted to increase $0.000337 with income growth, increase \$16.92 with increases in educational status, increase $16.29 when participants are Caucasian, increase \$27.44 with use of public lands, and increase $30.04 with use of forest lands. In the primary residential expenditure model, gender, employment status, ethnicity, wildlife including birds, mammals, insects, and fish, maintaining natural areas for fish or wildlife, and visiting public parks or natural areas had a significant effect on nonconsumptive wildlife related recreation expenditures. The total consumption was predicted to increase $1.57 when participants are male, increase \$2.92 when participants are employed, increase $3.06 when participants are Caucasian, increase \$7.99 when observing birds, increase $1.83 when observing mammals, increase \$1.85 when observing insects, increase $2.53 when observing fish, increase \$3.47 when participants maintain natural areas for fish or wildlife, and increase $2.87 when participants visit public parks or natural areas. The results in this study provide insight into determinants of nonconsumptive wildlife related recreation expenditures which can be used for planning and decision making purposes for nonconsumptive wildlife management. This study also provides guidance in the choice of empirical model for use in this type of expenditure analysis. Together, these results provide a rigorous analysis of nonconsumptive wildlife related recreation expenditures.
Chi, Yeong-nain, "A Double-Hurdle Expenditure Analysis of Nonconsumptive Wildlife-Related Recreation." (1997). LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses. 6561.