The Relationship of Hemolymph Sugar, Juvenile Hormone and Biogenic Amines to the Three Behavioral States of Mature Honey Bees.
Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Joseph P. Woodring
Differences in sugar titers, JH synthesis rate and biogenic amine metabolism correlated with three distinct activity groups or mature bees: resting bees, followers and dancers. Dancers had lower trehalose titers than followers or resting bees. In absconding bees trehalose titers were even lower, due to greatly elevated locomotor activity. The collecting and transferring of food by dancers and followers resulted in a higher glucose titer than in resting bees. Followers had a higher-JH synthesis rate than dancers, suggesting that JH could be an internal motivational stimulus to recruit followers to forage. Dancers and followers collect and transfer food and therefore had higher $\alpha$-glucosidase activity in the hypopharyngeal gland than resting bees. Higher rates of the $\alpha$-glucosidase activity were associated with higher JH synthesis rates, suggesting a JH regulated reprogramming of the hypopharyngeal gland from royal jelly production to $\alpha$-glucosidase. Dopamine (DA) metabolism was higher in the brain of the dancers than in followers, suggesting that brain DA levels may be involved in regulation of recruitment. The correlation of brain DA metabolism in the brain to that in the hemolymph suggested that brain DA brain was metabolized into the N-$\beta$-alanyldopamine (NBAD), which was then exported into the hemolymph. DA, NBAD, octopamine and serotonin levels were higher in the upper part of the brain than in the lower. A higher rate of DA metabolism was observed in the upper brain (containing the calyx of the mushroom body) of all activity groups, and the DA metabolism was higher in dancers than in followers or resting bees. It is suggested that DA modulation of the neural activity in the calyx might be involved with recruitment behavior. In addition, differences in sugar titers, the JH synthesis rate, and biogenic amine levels were found to be correlated with the availability of food, the season and the time of day.
Bozic, Janko, "The Relationship of Hemolymph Sugar, Juvenile Hormone and Biogenic Amines to the Three Behavioral States of Mature Honey Bees." (1996). LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses. 6232.