Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
The purpose of the investigation was to examine the maximal oxygen consumption ((')VO2 max), maximal anaerobic power (AP max), body composition (BC), somatotype (ST), the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the State-Trait Anxiety (STAI) characteristics of the Kuwaiti World Cup Soccer Team. (')VO2 max was determined using a progressive cycle ergometer protocol with data obtained by standard semi-open circuit spirometry. AP max was calculated by using the highest value of three vertical jumps applied to the Lewis formula: (SQRT.(4.9) x weight x SQRT.(D)). BC was estimated by skinfolds and ST was by the Heath-Carter method. Translated versions of POMS and STAI were used. The Kuwaiti team exhibited moderately high aerobic (51.9 ml/kg(.)min('-1)) and anaerobic (119.6 kg(.)m/sec) power, both values being significantly higher than college norms, but in the mid-ranges for world-class athletes in general. Relative body fatness (8.9%) and a balanced mesomorphic somatotype (2.1-4.5-2.1) were comparable to those of athletes in other high-level team sports. The World Cup soccer players revealed a significantly higher value in the anger factor when evaluated by POMS, contrasted to other findings on both elite athletes and college norms. This factor was determined to be normal on follow-up testing 18 months after the World Cup Games. Finally, they also showed higher state and trait anxiety than the college norms and when compared to other athletes. Analysis by playing position revealed the goalkeepers to have higher AP max, per cent fat, mesomorphy, and both state and trait anxiety levels, along with lower (')VO2 max, compared to players of other positions. Midfielders had the highest (')VO2 max and were the leanest. Offensives exhibited the lowest tension, depression, anger, confusion, and trait anxiety levels. The defensives' primary differentiating characteristic was a high AP max, comparable to that of the goalkeepers. The starters were significantly older, less fat, and were higher in both state and trait anxiety than the substitutes. The structural and functional measures taken for this study appeared to indicate that the Kuwaiti team had appropriate potential for World Cup competition. Excessively high state and trait anxiety, and anger indicates that more psychological preparation was needed.
Ramadan, Jasem Mohammad, "Selected Physiological, Psychological, and Anthropometric Characteristics of the Kuwaiti World Cup Soccer Team (Athletes, Vo2 Max, Per Cent Fat)." (1984). LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses. 3991.