Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Physics and Astronomy

Document Type



The technologies utilizing quantum states of light have been in the spotlight for the last two decades. In this regard, quantum metrology, quantum imaging, quantum-optical communication are some of the important applications that exploit fascinating quantum properties like quantum superposition, quantum correlations, and nonclassical photon statistics. However, the state-of-art technologies operating at the single-photon level are not robust enough to truly realize a reliable quantum-photonic technology.

In Chapter 1, I present a historical account of photon-based technologies. Furthermore, I discuss recent efforts and encouraging developments in the field of quantum-photonic technologies, and major challenges for the experimental realization of reliable quantum technologies utilizing photons, setting up a stage for unveiling our smart methodologies to cope with them. Similarly, in Chapter 2, I review the fundamental concepts such as states of light, spatial modes of light, and machine learning.

In Chapter 3 of this dissertation, I present a theoretical work on a nonlinear quantum metrology scheme, showing a sub-shot-noise limited phase estimation using the displaced-squeezed light and on/off detection. Furthermore, I discuss a camera-based squeezed-light detection technique that can be a smart and time-efficient alternative to conventional balanced-homodyne detection.

In Chapter 4, I discuss our efforts to incorporate artificial intelligence in a quest to improve the efficiency of discriminating thermal light sources from coherent light sources. The conventional identification technique requires a large number of measurements. We utilize artificial neural networks to dramatically reduce the number of measurements required to distinguish thermal light and coherent light.

In Chapter 5, I present a communication protocol that utilizes the spatial modes of light. Despite being valuable resources for a wide variety of quantum technologies, spatial modes of light are extremely vulnerable to random phase fluctuations. The conventional techniques to cope with these challenges are relatively inefficient. We utilize convolutional neural networks to perform the spatial mode correction of single photons, resulting in a near-unity fidelity of correction.

I wrap up my dissertation in Chapter 6 by summarizing the historical context of quantum technologies, challenging problems facing state-of-art quantum technologies, and the importance of our efforts to introduce artificial intelligence in photonic technologies.



Committee Chair

Magana-Loaiza, Omar

Available for download on Saturday, March 02, 2024