Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
X-ray grating interferometry is a nondestructive tool for visualizing the internal structures of samples. Image contrast can be generated from the absorption of X-rays, the change in phase of the beam and small-angle X-ray scattering (dark-field). The attenuation and differential phase data obtained complement each other to give the internal composition of a material and large-scale structural information. The dark-field signal reveals sub-pixel structural detail usually invisible to the attenuation and phase probe, with the potential to highlight size distribution detail in a fashion faster than conventional small-angle scattering techniques. This work applies X-ray grating interferometry to the study of additively manufactured polymeric objects. Additively manufactured bunnies made from single material—acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA)—were studied by grating-based X-ray interferometric two-dimensional imaging and tomography. The dark-field images detected poor adhesion in the plane perpendicular to the build plate. Curvature analysis of the sample perimeter revealed a slightly higher propensity to errors in regions of higher curvature. Incorporation of flame-retardant molecules to near-surface regions of otherwise flammable objects through the fused deposition modeling additive manufacturing technique was also explored. The anticipated advantage was efficient use of the flame retardants while keeping them away from the surface for safety. To determine heat propagation effects, two-dimensional grating-based interferometry imaging at LSU CAMD was used to study heated samples. The focus was on the dark-field signals to highlight voids and gaps arising from layer delamination or gasification of chemical components. The resulting differential phase and dark-field x images were tainted by fringes attributed to inaccuracies in the grating-step position. Attempts to correct this will be presented. Interferometric tomography was also carried out on the heated samples using the W. M. Keck interferometric system at LSU. Grating-based interferometry was also used to probe scattering structure sizes of heated samples. Comparison of the data with the conventional small-angle x-ray scattering technique, SAXS, is being pursued. The results obtained so far from the above-mentioned experimental works are presented in this document.
Kio, Omoefe Joy, "Application of X-ray Grating Interferometry to Polymer/Flame Retardant Blends in Additive Manufacturing" (2019). LSU Doctoral Dissertations. 4902.