Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Off-chip memory bandwidth has been considered as one of the major limiting factors to processor performance, especially for multi-cores and many-cores. Conventional processor design allocates a large portion of off-chip pins to deliver power, leaving a small number of pins for processor signal communication. We observed that the processor requires much less power than that can be supplied during memory intensive stages in some cases. In this work, we propose a dynamic pin switch technique to alleviate the bandwidth limitation issue. The technique is introduced to dynamically exploit the surplus pins for power delivery in the memory intensive phases and uses them to provide extra bandwidth for the program executions, thus significantly boosting the performance. We also explore its performance benefit in the era of Phase-change memory (PCM) and prove that the technique can be applied beyond DRAM-based memory systems. On the other hand, the end of Dennard Scaling has led to a large amount of inactive or significantly under-clocked transistors on modern chip multi-processors in order to comply with the power budget and prevent the processors from overheating. This so-called “dark silicon” is one of the most critical constraints that will hinder the scaling with Moore’s Law in the future. While advanced cooling techniques, such as liquid cooling, can effectively decrease the chip temperature and alleviate the power constraints; the peak performance, determined by the maximum number of transistors which are allowed to switch simultaneously, is still confined by the amount of power pins on the chip package. In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism to power up the dark silicon by dynamically switching a portion of I/O pins to power pins when off-chip communications are less frequent. By enabling extra cores or increasing processor frequency, the proposed strategy can significantly boost performance compared with traditional designs. Using the switchable pins can increase inter-socket bandwidth as one of performance bottlenecks. Multi-socket computer systems are popular in workstations and servers. However, they suffer from the relatively low bandwidth of inter-socket communication especially for massive parallel workloads that generates many inter-socket requests for synchronizations and remote memory accesses. The inter-socket traffic poses a huge pressure on the underlying networks fully connecting all processors with the limited bandwidth that is confined by pin resources. Given the constraint, we propose to dynamically increase the inter-socket band-width, trading off with lower off-chip memory bandwidth when the systems have heavy inter-socket communication but few off-chip memory accesses. The design increases the physical bandwidth of inter-socket communication via switching the function of pins from off-chip memory accesses to inter-socket communication.
Document Availability at the Time of Submission
Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.
Chen, Shaoming, "Increasing Off-Chip Bandwidth and Mitigating Dark Silicon via Switchable Pins" (2016). LSU Doctoral Dissertations. 3337.