Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Accurate object classification is a challenging problem for various low to high resolution imagery data. This applies to both natural as well as synthetic image datasets. However, each object recognition dataset poses its own distinct set of domain-specific problems. In order to address these issues, we need to devise intelligent learning algorithms which require a deep understanding and careful analysis of the feature space. In this thesis, we introduce three new learning frameworks for the analysis of both airborne images (NAIP dataset) and handwritten digit datasets without and with noise (MNIST and n-MNIST respectively). First, we propose a probabilistic framework for the analysis of the NAIP dataset which includes (1) an unsupervised segmentation module based on the Statistical Region Merging algorithm, (2) a feature extraction module that extracts a set of standard hand-crafted texture features from the images, (3) a supervised classification algorithm based on Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Networks, and (4) a structured prediction framework using Conditional Random Fields that integrates the results of the segmentation and classification modules into a single composite model to generate the final class labels. Next, we introduce two new datasets SAT-4 and SAT-6 sampled from the NAIP imagery and use them to evaluate a multitude of Deep Learning algorithms including Deep Belief Networks (DBN), Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Stacked Autoencoders (SAE) for generating class labels. Finally, we propose a learning framework by integrating hand-crafted texture features with a DBN. A DBN uses an unsupervised pre-training phase to perform initialization of the parameters of a Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network to a global error basin which can then be improved using a round of supervised fine-tuning using Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Networks. These networks can subsequently be used for classification. In the following discussion, we show that the integration of hand-crafted features with DBN shows significant improvement in performance as compared to traditional DBN models which take raw image pixels as input. We also investigate why this integration proves to be particularly useful for aerial datasets using a statistical analysis based on Distribution Separability Criterion. Then we introduce a new dataset called noisy-MNIST (n-MNIST) by adding (1) additive white gaussian noise (AWGN), (2) motion blur and (3) Reduced contrast and AWGN to the MNIST dataset and present a learning algorithm by combining probabilistic quadtrees and Deep Belief Networks. This dynamic integration of the Deep Belief Network with the probabilistic quadtrees provide significant improvement over traditional DBN models on both the MNIST and the n-MNIST datasets. Finally, we extend our experiments on aerial imagery to the class of general texture images and present a theoretical analysis of Deep Neural Networks applied to texture classification. We derive the size of the feature space of textural features and also derive the Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension of certain classes of Neural Networks. We also derive some useful results on intrinsic dimension and relative contrast of texture datasets and use these to highlight the differences between texture datasets and general object recognition datasets.
Document Availability at the Time of Submission
Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.
Basu, Saikat, "Probabilistic and Deep Learning Algorithms for the Analysis of Imagery Data" (2016). LSU Doctoral Dissertations. 2428.