Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Physics and Astronomy
Quantum optical metrology deals with estimation of an unknown parameter by exploiting the non-classical properties of the light. The unknown parameter that we are trying to estimate is the optical phase. Precise optical phase measurement has been a well-known problem and has many applications, most notably the gravitational wave detection. In this thesis we investigate the interferometric measurement schemes. We consider the parity detection for a class of input states that have been shown to exhibit sub-shot noise limited phase estimate with their respective detection schemes. Our results indicate that the parity detection applies to all these strategies with various input states and thus acts as a unified detection scheme towards the goal of interferometric phase estimates beyond the shot-noise limit. We also consider the performance of the so-called optimal state with the canonical phase measurement scheme that was proposed by Sanders and Milburn [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2944 (1995)] in presence of photon loss. The model for photon loss is a generic fictitious beam splitter and the analytical treatment requires density matrix approach rather than the state-vector formalism. We present full density-matrix calculations. Our results indicate that, for a given amount of loss, the phase estimate saturates but does not diverge as one would expect with increasing the loss. Finally, we study the continuous measurement and feedback scheme with optical homodyne detection for a single optical qubit. We found a protocol that speeds up the rate of increase of the average purity of the system and generates a deterministic evolution for the purity in the limit of strong feedback.
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Chiruvelli, Aravind, "Topics in quantum optical metrology" (2009). LSU Doctoral Dissertations. 2072.