Temperature-dependent development of the cycad aulacaspis scale, aulacaspis yasumatsui (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)
Egg duration period, immature development time, and pre-oviposition period of the cycad aulacaspis scale, Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi, were measured at 9 constant temperatures in the laboratory. Egg duration period ranged from 15 d at 20°C to 7 d at 30°C. First instar development time was 30 d at 18°C but only 4 d at 35°C. No first instars completed development below 18°C or above 35°C. Development time of second instar females ranged from 19 d at 18 and 20°C to 9 d at 30°C. Development time of male second instar + pupa ranged from 15 d at 20°C to 910 d at 2532°C. Pre-oviposition period averaged 14 d at 20°C to 8 d at 25 32°C; no females laid eggs at 18 and 35°C. The lowest temperature threshold for all stages ranged from 8 to 12°C and 538 degree-days were required for female immature development in a linear model. Development rates of the scale are compared to those of 3 of its natural enemies, Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrdy-Younga, Rhyzobius lophanthae (Blaisdell), and Coccobius fulvus (Compere and Annecke).
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Cave, R., Sciacchetano, C., & Diaz, R. (2009). Temperature-dependent development of the cycad aulacaspis scale, aulacaspis yasumatsui (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Florida Entomologist, 92 (4), 578-581. https://doi.org/10.1653/024.092.0407