University of North Carolina Press
Michael John Witgen "concludes that the geographical expansion of the United States, especially in the northern Great Lakes homelands of the Anishinaabeg, depended not so much on military violence or even the immediate physical removal of Indigenous peoples. Rather, conquest was facilitated by a ‘political economy of plunder’ in which a coercive and duplicitous treaty process combined with the debt claims made by Indian agents, traders, and merchants to systematically separate Native nations from their land and annuity payments”
"Seeing Red: Indigenous Land, American Expansion, and the Political Economy of Plunder in North America,"
Civil War Book Review: Vol. 24
Available at: https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/cwbr/vol24/iss3/7