Title

Human NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase type i (hNQO1) activation of quinone propionic acid trigger groups

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

10-9-2012

Abstract

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type I (NQO1) is a target enzyme for triggered delivery of drugs at inflamed tissue and tumor sites, particularly those that challenge traditional therapies. Prodrugs, macromolecules, and molecular assemblies possessing trigger groups that can be cleaved by environmental stimuli are vehicles with the potential to yield active drug only at prescribed sites. Furthermore, quinone propionic acids (QPAs) covalently attached to prodrugs or liposome surfaces can be removed by application of a reductive trigger stimulus, such as that from NQO1; their rates of reductive activation should be tunable via QPA structure. We explored in detail the recombinant human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type I (rhNQO1)-catalyzed NADH reduction of a family of substituted QPAs and obtained high precision kinetic parameters. It is found that small changes in QPA structure-in particular, single atom and function group substitutions on the quinone ring at R 1-lead to significant impacts on the Michaelis constant (K m), maximum velocity (Vmax), catalytic constant (k cat), and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). Molecular docking simulations demonstrate that alterations in QPA structure result in large changes in QPA alignment and placement with respect to the flavin isoalloxazine ring in the active site of rhNQO1; a qualitative relationship exists between the kinetic parameters and the depth of QPA penetration into the rhNQO1 active site. From a quantitative perspective, a very good correlation is observed between log(kcat/Km) and the molecular-docking-derived distance between the flavin hydride donor site and quinone hydride acceptor site in the QPAs, an observation that is in agreement with developing theories. The comprehensive kinetic and molecular modeling knowledge obtained for the interaction of recombinant human NQO1 with the quinone propionic acid analogues provides insight into the design and implementation of the QPA trigger groups for drug delivery applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Publication Source (Journal or Book title)

Biochemistry

First Page

8014

Last Page

8026

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