Synthesis of 3,8-Dichloro-6-ethyl-1,2,5,7-tetramethyl-BODIPY from an Asymmetric Dipyrroketone and Reactivity Studies at the 3,5,8-Positions
© 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. The asymmetric BODIPY 1a (BODIPY=4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene), containing two chloro substituents at the 3,8-positions and a reactive 5-methyl group, was synthesized from the asymmetric dipyrroketone 3, which was readily obtained from available pyrrole 2a. The reactivity of 3,8-dichloro-6-ethyl-1,2,5,7-tetramethyl-BODIPY 1a was investigated by using four types of reactions. This versatile BODIPY undergoes regioselective Pd0-catalyzed Stille coupling reactions and/or regioselective nucleophilic addition/elimination reactions, first at the 8-chloro and then at the 3-chloro group, using a variety of organostannanes and N-, O-, and S-centered nucleophiles. On the other hand, the more reactive 5-methyl group undergoes regioselective Knoevenagel condensation with an aryl aldehyde to produce a monostyryl-BODIPY, and oxidation with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) gives the corresponding 5-formyl-BODIPY. Investigation of the reactivity of asymmetric BODIPY 1a led to the preparation of a variety of functionalized BODIPYs with λmax of absorption and emission in the ranges 487-587 and 521-617 nm, respectively. The longest absorbing/emitting compound was the monostyryl-BODIPY 16, and the largest Stokes shift (49 nm) and fluorescence quantum yield (0.94) were measured for 5-thienyl-8-phenoxy-BODIPY 15. The structural properties (including 16 X-ray structures) of the new series of BODIPYs were investigated.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Chemistry - A European Journal
Zhao, N., Vicente, M., Fronczek, F., & Smith, K. (2015). Synthesis of 3,8-Dichloro-6-ethyl-1,2,5,7-tetramethyl-BODIPY from an Asymmetric Dipyrroketone and Reactivity Studies at the 3,5,8-Positions. Chemistry - A European Journal, 21 (16), 6181-6192. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201406550