Investigation of the chemical differences between native and bypass coronary artery plaques from the same heart using Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP/MAS-NMR)

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The plaque deposits in bypass arteries and native arteries from the same heart have been studied using solid state cross polarization nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS NMR). Both 13C and 31P signals were observed. The samples are of interest because plaque in native arteries may have deposited during the lifetime of the patient. However, plaque in the bypass occurred since bypass surgery. It has been observed that the mature plaque in native arteries was more calcified than that in bypass arteries, especially if the latter had not matured to become significant in size. Results showed that the concentrations of carboxylate carbons present in cholesterol esters were similar in native and bypass arteries. However, the areas of the 13C peaks of the carboxylate compared to the sum of areas of all other 13C arteries indicated that the carboxylate was attached to five or six other carbons. From this we can calculate that the carboxylate to other carbon ratio in the remainder must be 1:4 or 1:3. This indicates large quantities of other organic compounds in the deposits. Studies of 31P showed that phosphorus existed primarily as hydroxyapatite in the crystalline native plaque. However, a large proportion existed as organic phosphorus in the bypass plaque. In addition, we studied the interactions of calcium with homocysteine and cholesterol. Calcium-homocysteine and cholesterol-homocysteine precipitates were characterized using 13C solid state NMR. Results showed that calcium appeared to interact with sulphur in the homocysteine which seemed to form dimers and polymers.

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Journal of Applied Spectroscopy

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