Dihydroporphyrin synthesis: New methodology
Selective formation of trans-nitrochlorins 16-19, cyclopropylchlorins 14, 15, and 20-23, or functionalized trans-chlorins 5-13 by reaction of 2- nitro-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin 1 with 'active' methylene compounds such as malonates or malononitrile in the presence of base has been achieved. Reaction control is accomplished via sequential Michael additions, followed by intra-molecular nucleophilic displacement of a secondary nitro group. Steric as well as thermodynamic effects have been found to govern the selectivity of product formation. Ambient temperature or bulky carbanion substituents lead to nitrochlorins and/or cyclopropylchlorins. Increased reaction temperatures, combined with sterically less encumbered carbanion substituents, favor the formation of disubstituted trans-chlorins. Nucleophilic ring-opening reactions of cyclopropyl-derivative 14 afford disubstituted trans-chlorin products 5 and 25 and provide additional mechanistic evidence for the intermediacy of the cyclopropylchlorin. Use of porphyrins with modified meso-phenyl positions illustrates the generality of this methodology and allows a novel method for the preparation of a wide range of reduced porphyrins, which may find application in fields such as the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Journal of Organic Chemistry
Shea, K., Jaquinod, L., & Smith, K. (1998). Dihydroporphyrin synthesis: New methodology. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 63 (20), 7013-7021. https://doi.org/10.1021/jo980965p