Heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste combustion dry scrubber residue using soluble phosphate
Soluble phosphate is an effective stabilization agent for divalent heavy metals in waste materials such as scrubber residues. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy suggests that the stabilization occur by precipitation of metal phosphate reaction products. Bulk and surface spectroscopies show that the insoluble reaction products are nanometer-sized, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphates, tertiary metal phosphates (TMP), and apatite family minerals (AFM). Both AFM and TMP end members and ideal solid solutions act as controlling solids for Ca2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+. The prevalence of nanometer-seized reaction products suggests that Oswald ripening and precipitate maturization has not completely occurred during initial mixing.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Environmental Science and Technology
Eighmy, T., Crannell, B., Butler, L., Cartledge, F., Emery, E., Oblas, D., Krzanowski, J., Eusden, J., Shaw, E., & Francis, C. (1997). Heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste combustion dry scrubber residue using soluble phosphate. Environmental Science and Technology, 31 (11), 3330-3338. https://doi.org/10.1021/es970407c