Characterization and phosphate stabilization of dusts from the vitrification of MSW combustion residues
The use of soluble PO43- as a heavy metal chemical stabilization agent was evaluated for a dust generated from melting or vitrification of municipal solid waste combustion residues. Vitrification dusts contain high concentrations of volatile elements such as Cl, Na, K, S, Pb, and Zn. These elements are present in the dusts largely as simple salts (e.g. PbCl2, ZnSO4) which are highly leachable. At an experimental dose of 0.4 moles of soluble PO43- per kg of residue, the pH-dependent leaching (pH 5,7,9) showed that the treatment was able to reduce equilibrium concentrations by factors of 3 to 100 for many metals; particularly Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Bulk and surface spectroscopies showed that the insoluble reaction products are tertiary metal phosphate [e.g. Zn3(PO4)2] and apatite [e.g. Pb5(PO4)3Cl] family minerals. Geochemical thermodynamic equilibrium modeling showed that apatite family and tertiary metal phosphate phases act as controlling solids for the equilibrium concentrations of Ca2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and Cd2+ in the leachates during pH-dependent leaching. Both end members and ideal solid solutions were seen to be controlling solids. Soluble phosphate effectively converted soluble metal salts into insoluble metal phosphate phases despite the relatively low doses and dry mixing conditions that were used. Soluble phosphate is an effective stabilization agent for divalent heavy metals in melting dusts where leachable metals are present in high concentrations.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Taylor Eighmy, T., Crannell, B., Krzanowski, J., Butler, L., Cartledge, F., Emery, E., Eusden, J., Shaw, E., & Francis, C. (1998). Characterization and phosphate stabilization of dusts from the vitrification of MSW combustion residues. Waste Management, 18 (6-8), 513-524. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-053X(98)00139-1