Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease Is Mediated by Age-Variable IL-33
© 2015 Saravia et al. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of infant hospitalizations and severe RSV infections are a significant risk factor for childhood asthma. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for RSV induced immunopathophysiology remain elusive. Using an age-appropriate mouse model of RSV, we show that IL-33 plays a critical role in the immunopathogenesis of severe RSV, which is associated with higher group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) specifically in neonates. Infection with RSV induced rapid IL-33 expression and an increase in ILC2 numbers in the lungs of neonatal mice; this was not observed in adult mice. Blocking IL-33 with antibodies or using an IL-33 receptor knockout mouse during infection was sufficient to inhibit RSV immunopathogenesis (i.e., airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2 inflammation, eosinophilia, and mucus hyperproduction); whereas administration of IL-33 to adult mice during RSV infection was sufficient to induce RSV disease. Additionally, elevated IL-33 and IL-13 were observed in nasal aspirates from infants hospitalized with RSV; these cytokines declined during convalescence. In summary, IL-33 is necessary, either directly or indirectly, to induce ILC2s and the Th2 biased immunopathophysiology observed following neonatal RSV infection. This study provides a mechanism involving IL-33 and ILC2s in RSV mediated human asthma.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Saravia, J., You, D., Shrestha, B., Jaligama, S., Siefker, D., Lee, G., Harding, J., Jones, T., Rovnaghi, C., Bagga, B., DeVincenzo, J., & Cormier, S. (2015). Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease Is Mediated by Age-Variable IL-33. PLoS Pathogens, 11 (10) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005217