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© 2015 Elsevier B.V. Enhanced leukocytic infiltration into pancreatic islets contributes to inflammation-based diminutions in functional β-cell mass. Insulitis (aka islet inflammation), which can be present in both T1DM and T2DM, is one factor influencing pancreatic β-cell death and dysfunction. IL-1β, an inflammatory mediator in both T1DM and T2DM, acutely (within 1. h) induced expression of the CCL20 gene in rat and human islets and clonal β-cell lines. Transcriptional induction of CCL20 required the p65 subunit of NF-κB to replace the p50 subunit at two functional κB sites within the CCL20 proximal gene promoter. The NF-κB p50 subunit prevents CCL20 gene expression during unstimulated conditions and overexpression of p50 reduces CCL20, but enhances cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), transcript accumulation after exposure to IL-1β. We also identified differential recruitment of specific co-activator molecules to the CCL20 gene promoter, when compared with the CCL2 and COX2 genes, revealing distinct transcriptional requirements for individual NF-κB responsive genes. Moreover, IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ individually increased the expression of CCR6, the receptor for CCL20, on the surface of human neutrophils. We further found that the chemokine CCL20 is elevated in serum from both genetically obese db/. db mice and in C57BL6/J mice fed a high-fat diet. Taken together, these results are consistent with a possible activation of the CCL20-CCR6 axis in diseases with inflammatory components. Thus, interfering with this signaling pathway, either at the level of NF-κB-mediated chemokine production, or downstream receptor activation, could be a potential therapeutic target to offset inflammation-associated tissue dysfunction in obesity and diabetes.

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Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms

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