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© FASEB. Dietary methionine restriction (MR) by 80%increases energy expenditure (EE), reduces adiposity, and improves insulin sensitivity. We propose that the MRinduced increase in EE limits fat deposition by increasing sympathetic nervous system-dependent remodeling of white adipose tissue and increasing uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in both white and brown adipose tissue. In independent assessments of the role of UCP1 as a mediator of MR's effects on EE and insulin sensitivity, EE did not differ between wild-type (WT) and Ucp1-/- mice on the control diet, butMR increased EE by 31%and reduced adiposity by 25% in WT mice. In contrast, MR failed to increase EE or reduce adiposity in Ucp1-/- mice. However, MR was able to increase overall insulin sensitivity by 2.2-fold in both genotypes. Housing temperatures used to minimize (28°C) or increase (23°C) sympathetic nervous system activity revealed temperature-independent effects of the diet on EE. Metabolomics analysis showed that genotypic and dietary effects on white adipose tissue remodeling resulted in profound increases in fatty acid metabolism within this tissue. These findings establish that UCP1 is required for the MR-induced increase in EE but not insulin sensitivity and suggest that diet-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity are not strictly derived from dietary effects on energy balance.

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FASEB Journal

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