FINDSITE-metal: Integrating evolutionary information and machine learning for structure-based metal-binding site prediction at the proteome level
The rapid accumulation of gene sequences, many of which are hypothetical proteins with unknown function, has stimulated the development of accurate computational tools for protein function prediction with evolution/structure-based approaches showing considerable promise. In this article, we present FINDSITE-metal, a new threading-based method designed specifically to detect metal-binding sites in modeled protein structures. Comprehensive benchmarks using different quality protein structures show that weakly homologous protein models provide sufficient structural information for quite accurate annotation by FINDSITE-metal. Combining structure/evolutionary information with machine learning results in highly accurate metal-binding annotations; for protein models constructed by TASSER, whose average Cα RMSD from the native structure is 8.9 Å, 59.5% (71.9%) of the best of top five predicted metal locations are within 4 Å (8 Å) from a bound metal in the crystal structure. For most of the targets, multiple metal-binding sites are detected with the best predicted binding site at rank 1 and within the top two ranks in 65.6% and 83.1% of the cases, respectively. Furthermore, for iron, copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium ions, the binding metal can be predicted with high, typically 70% to 90%, accuracy. FINDSITE-metal also provides a set of confidence indexes that help assess the reliability of predictions. Finally, we describe the proteome-wide application of FINDSITE-metal that quantifies the metal-binding complement of the human proteome. FINDSITE-metal is freely available to the academic community at http://cssb.biology.gatech.edu/findsite-metal/. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics
Brylinski, M., & Skolnick, J. (2011). FINDSITE-metal: Integrating evolutionary information and machine learning for structure-based metal-binding site prediction at the proteome level. Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics, 79 (3), 735-751. https://doi.org/10.1002/prot.22913