Phylogeny and phylogeography of Mantophryne (Anura: Microhylidae) reveals cryptic diversity in New Guinea
New Guinea is one of five high biodiversity wilderness areas, and frog diversity is exceptionally large, with more than 400 species described to date. The microhylid frog genus Mantophryne is endemic to New Guinea and consists of four species, three of which have narrow geographic distributions and a fourth, M. lateralis, with a broad range that spans the eastern half of the island. Here, we sequence 104 Mantophryne samples for three mitochondrial and three nuclear loci to reconstruct the first phylogeny of the genus and to examine spatial patterns of diversity within M. lateralis. Results indicate that the wide-ranging M. lateralis is composed of at least nine geographically separated and well-supported lineages that represent putative species. Biogeographic analysis suggests that Mantophryne evolved on the eastern Papuan peninsula with subsequent dispersal westward, as well as overwater dispersal events to the Louisiade and D'Entrecasteaux archipelagos. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.