Little evidence of systemic and adipose tissue inflammation in overweight individuals(†)

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CONTEXT: The effect of weight loss by diet alone or diet in conjunction with exercise on low-grade inflammation in non-obese (overweight) individuals is not known. OBJECTIVE: Test the hypothesis that 24 weeks of moderate calorie restriction (CR; 25%) by diet only or with aerobic exercise would reduce markers of systemic inflammation and attenuate inflammation gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Institutional Research Center. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five overweight (body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) but otherwise healthy participants (16M/19F) completed the study. INTERVENTION: PARTICIPANTS were randomized to either CR (25% reduction in energy intake, n = 12), caloric restriction + exercise (CR + EX: 12.5% reduction in energy intake + 12.5% increase in exercise energy expenditure, n = 12), or control (healthy weight-maintenance diet, n = 11) for 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fasting serum markers of inflammation [leptin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), adiponectin] and inflammation-related genes [CD68, IL-6, TNF-α, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)] in subcutaneous adipose tissue. RESULTS: CR and CR + EX lost similar amounts of body weight (-10 ± 1%), fat mass (-24 ± 3%), visceral fat (-27 ± 3%), and had increased insulin sensitivity (CR: 40 ± 20%, CR + EX: 66 ± 22%). Leptin was significantly decreased from baseline (p < 0.001) in both groups however TNF-α and IL-6 were not changed. hsCRP was decreased in CR + EX. There was no change in the expression of genes involved in macrophage infiltration (CD68, MIF MCP-1, PAI-1) or inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, adiponectin) in either CR or CR + EX. CONCLUSION: A 10% weight loss with a 25% CR diet alone or with exercise did not impact markers of systemic inflammation or the expression of inflammation-related adipose genes in overweight individuals.

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Frontiers in genetics

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