Thiophanate-Methyl Resistance and Fitness Components of Colletotrichum musae Isolates from Banana in Brazil

Document Type


Publication Date



Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum musae, is the most important postharvest disease of banana and is widely distributed among the banana production regions in Brazil. Although thiophanate-methyl is a fungicide frequently used in Brazilian banana orchards to control Sigatoka leaf spot, Collettotrichum populations are also exposed, resulting in the evolution of fungicide resistance and the inability to manage banana anthracnose. We investigated 139 Brazilian isolates of C. musae for thiophanate-methyl sensitivity in vitro. The 50% mycelial growth inhibition (EC) values varied between 0.003 and 48.73 μg/ml. One-hundred and thirty isolates were classified as sensitive, with EC values ranging from 0.003 to 4.84 μg/ml, while the remaining nine isolates were considered moderately resistant, with EC values ranging between 10.43 and 48.73 μg/ml. Resistant or highly resistant isolates (EC > 100 μg/ml) were not found. A substitution of TAC for TTC at codon 200 in a coding region of the β-tubulin gene was associated with the moderately resistant phenotype. Applications of thiophanate-methyl formulation to detached banana fruit at the label rate (500 μg/ml) showed low efficacy in controlling the moderately resistant isolates on banana fruits. However, there is no indication of a reduction in fitness associated with fungicide resistance as sensitive and moderately resistant isolates do not differ with respect to mycelial growth rate (P = 0.098), spore production (P = 0.066), spore germination (P = 0.366), osmotic sensitivity (P = 0.051), and virulence (P = 0.057). Our results revealed absence of adaptability cost for the moderately resistant isolates, suggesting that they can be dominant in population if the fungicide continue to be applied.

Publication Source (Journal or Book title)

Plant disease

First Page


Last Page


This document is currently not available here.