Elucidating the Colletotrichum spp. diversity responsible for papaya anthracnose in Brazil

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Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is among the most important tropical fruits produced in Brazil and is grown in nearly every state. However, several diseases can affect papaya production. Anthracnose stands out among these diseases due to high postharvest yield losses. Previous studies identified Colletotrichum magna (invalid name) and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose of papaya in Brazil, but species identification was inadequate due to reliance on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed space (nrITS) and glutamine synthetase (GS) sequences. Thus, the diversity of Colletotrichum spp. causing papaya anthracnose in Brazil may be underestimated. The present study aims to identify the Colletotrichum species associated with papaya anthracnose in Brazil based on broad geographical sampling and multilocus phylogenetic analysis, as well as to assess the prevalence and aggressiveness of the species found. Here, we report C. chrysophilum, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. karsti, C. okinawense, C. plurivorum, C. queenslandicum, C. siamense, C. theobromicola, Colletotrichum truncatum causing papaya anthracnose in Brazil. We are also synonymizing Colletotrichum corchorum-capsularis under C. truncatum. Colletotrichum okinawense was the most prevalent species in general and in most sampled locations, and with C. truncatum represents the most aggressive species.

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Fungal biology

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