Effects of cardiotrophin on adipocytes
Cardiotrophin (CT-1) is a naturally occurring protein member of the interleukin (IL)-6 cytokine family and signals through the gp130/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) heterodimer. The formation of gp130/ LIFR complex triggers the auto/trans-phosphorylation of associated Janus kinases, leading to the activation of Janus kinase/STAT and MAPK (ERK1 and -2) signaling pathways. Since adipocytes express both gp130 and LIFR proteins and are responsive to other IL-6 family cytokines, we examined the effects of CT-1 on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our studies have shown that CT-1 administration results in a dose- and time-dependent activation and nuclear translocation of STAT1, -3, -5A, and -5B as well as ERK1 and -2. We also confirmed the ability of CT-1 to induce signaling in fat cells in vivo. Our studies revealed that neither CT-1 nor ciliary neurotrophic factor treatment affected adipocyte differentiation. However, acute CT-1 treatment caused an increase in SOCS-3 mRNA in adipocytes and a transient decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mRNA that was regulated by the binding of STAT1 to the PPARγ2 promoter. The effects of CT-1 on SOCS-3 and PPARγ mRNA were independent of MAPK activation. Chronic administration of CT-1 to 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in a decrease of both fatty acid synthase and insulin receptor substrate-1 protein expression yet did not effect the expression of a variety of other adipocyte proteins. Moreover, chronic CT-1 treatment resulted in the development of insulin resistance as judged by a decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In summary, CT-1 is a potent regulator of signaling in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo, and our current efforts are focused on determining the role of this cardioprotective cytokine on adipocyte physiology.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zvonic, S., Hogan, J., Arbour-Reily, P., Mynatt, R., & Stephens, J. (2004). Effects of cardiotrophin on adipocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279 (46), 47572-47579. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M403998200