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© 2016 the American Physiological Society. Adiponectin is a hormone secreted from adipocytes that plays an important role in insulin sensitivity and protects against metabolic syndrome. Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) are potent STAT5 activators that regulate the expression of several genes in adipocytes. Studies have shown that the secretion of adiponectin from adipose tissue is decreased by treatment with PRL and GH. In this study, we demonstrate that 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with GH or PRL exhibit a reduction in adiponectin protein levels. Furthermore, we identified three putative STAT5 binding sites in the murine adiponectin promoter and show that only one of these, located at 3,809, binds nuclear protein in a GHor PRL-dependent manner. Mutation of the STAT5 binding site reduced PRL-dependent protein binding, and supershift analysis revealed that STAT5A and -5B, but not STAT1 and -3, bind to this site in response to PRL. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (IP) analysis demonstrated that only STAT5A, and not STAT1 and -3, bind to the murine adiponectin promoter in a GH-dependent manner in vivo. Adiponectin promoter/reporter constructs were responsive to GH, and chromatin IP analysis reveals that STAT5 binds the adiponectin promoter in vivo following GH stimulation. Overall, these data strongly suggest that STAT5 activators regulate adiponectin transcrip-tion through the binding of STAT5 to the 3,809 site that leads to decreased adiponectin expression and secretion. These mechanistic observations are highly consistent with studies in mice and humans that have high GH or PRL levels that are accompanied by lower circulating levels of adiponectin.

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American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism

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