Comparison of the d-lactate stereospecific dehydrogenase of Limulus polyphemus with active-site regions of l-lactate dehydrogenases

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Lactate dehydrogenase (d-lactate: NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC from the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, a dimeric enzyme stereospecific for d-lactate, has been purified by affinity chromatography. Maleyl tryptic peptides containing arginine residues isolated from the Limulus enzyme have been characterized and sequenced. The small peptides obtained from similarly treated l-lactate-specific enzyme homologs define major portions of the substrate and coenzyme binding regions and are virtually identical among l-lactate-specific enzymes. Although the six small peptides and free arginine isolated from the Limulus enzyme indicate that the small number of arginine tryptic peptides are located in a few discrete consecutive clusters similarly to the l-lactate dehydrogenases, the peptides nevertheless show no obvious sequence homology to the corresponding peptides from l-lactate dehydrogenases. These results indicate that this lactate dehydrogenase of altered substrate specificity either evolved with major rearrangements of the active site if it evolved from an l-lactate dehydrogenase, or that d-lactate dehydrogenases have evolved from a different protein. The results contradict proposed models which suggest that minor changes in the spatial orientation of pyruvate resulting from minimal rearrangement of the active site could accommodate the change in substrate specificity. © 1983.

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Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)/Protein Structure and Molecular

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