Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the primary inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator and urokinase, is known to convert readily to a latent form by insertion of the reactive center loop into a central β- sheet. Interaction with vitronectin stabilizes PAI-1 and decreases the rate of conversion to the latent form, but conformational effects of vitronectin on the reactive center loop of PAI-1 have not been documented. Mutant forms of PAI-1 were designed with a cysteine substitution at either position P1' or P9 of the reactive center loop. Labeling of the unique cysteine with a sulfhydryl-reactive fluorophore provides a probe that is sensitive to vitronectin binding. Results indicate that the scissile P1-P1' bond of PAI-1 is more solvent exposed upon interaction with vitronectin, whereas the N- terminal portion of the reactive loop does not experience a significant change in its environment. These results were complemented by labeling vitronectin with an arginine-specific coumarin probe which compromises heparin binding but does not interfere with PAI-1 binding to the protein. Dissociation constants of approximately 100 nM are calculated for the vitronectin/PAI-1 interaction from titrations using both fluorescent probes. Furthermore, experiments in which PAI-1 failed to compete with heparin for binding to vitronectin argue for separate binding sites for the two ligands on vitronectin.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Gibson, A., Baburaj, K., Day, D., Verhamme, I., Shore, J., & Peterson, C. (1997). The use of fluorescent probes to characterize conformational changes in the interaction between vitronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 272 (8), 5112-5121. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.272.8.5112