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© 2016 American Chemical Society. The dramatic increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has necessitated a search for new antibacterial agents against novel targets. Moiramide B is a natural product, broad-spectrum antibiotic that inhibits the carboxyltransferase component of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid synthesis. Herein, we report the 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure of moiramide B bound to carboxyltransferase. An unanticipated but significant finding was that moiramide B bound as the enol/enolate. Crystallographic studies demonstrate that the (4S)-methyl succinimide moiety interacts with the oxyanion holes of the enzyme, supporting the notion that an anionic enolate is the active form of the antibacterial agent. Structure-activity studies demonstrate that the unsaturated fatty acid tail of moiramide B is needed only for entry into the bacterial cell. These results will allow the design of new antibacterial agents against the bacterial form of carboxyltransferase.

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