Alternative reproductive phenotypes within species
© 2018 Elsevier Inc. Alternative reproductive phenotypes (ARPs) involve individuals in the same life history stage allocating resources to one or another trait (or suite of traits) as a means of achieving the same goal to obtain fertilizations. These alternatives are typically not expressed at the same time in an individual, often result from conditional expression of different solutions to reproductive competition, and exist within a sex or population at only one point in time. ARPs exist across animal taxa, are more prevalent in males, and thresholds for their expression often depend on factors such as size and/or status, environment, or developmental trajectory.