Structural basis of integrin regulation and signaling
Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix, and cell-pathogen interactions. They play critical roles for the immune system in leukocyte trafficking and migration, immunological synapse formation, costimulation, and phagocytosis. Integrin adhesiveness can be dynamically regulated through a process termed inside-out signaling. In addition, ligand binding transduces signals from the extracellular domain to the cytoplasm in the classical outside-in direction. Recent structural, biochemical, and biophysical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of integrin bidirectional signaling across the plasma membrane. Large-scale reorientations of the ectodomain of up to 200 Å couple to conformational change in ligand-binding sites and are linked to changes in α and β subunit transmembrane domain association. In this review, we focus on integrin structure as it relates to affinity modulation, ligand binding, outside-in signaling, and cell surface distribution dynamics. Copyright © 2007 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Annual Review of Immunology
Luo, B., Carman, C., & Springer, T. (2007). Structural basis of integrin regulation and signaling. Annual Review of Immunology, 25, 619-647. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.immunol.25.022106.141618