Regulation of integrin αiIbβ3 ligand binding and signaling by the metal ion binding sites in the β i domain

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The ability of αIIbβ3 to bind ligands and undergo outside-in signaling is regulated by three divalent cation binding sites in the β I domain. Specifically, the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) and the synergistic metal binding site (SyMBS) are thought to be required for ligand binding due to their synergy between Ca 2+ and Mg 2+. The adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS) is an important ligand binding regulatory site that also acts as a critical link between the β I and hybrid domains for signaling. Mutations in this site have provided conflicting results for ligand binding and adhesion in different integrins. We have mutated the β3 SyMBS and ADMIDAS. The SyMBS mutant abolished ligand binding and outside-in signaling, but when an activating glycosylation mutation in the αIIb Calf 2 domain was introduced, the ligand binding affinity and signaling were restored. Thus, the SyMBS is important but not absolutely required for integrin bidirectional signaling. The ADMIDAS mutants showed reduced ligand binding affinity and abolished outside-in signaling, and the activating glycosylation mutation could fully restore integrin signaling of the ADMIDAS mutant. We propose that the ADMIDAS ion stabilizes the low-affinity state when the integrin headpiece is in the closed conformation, whereas it stabilizes the high-affinity state when the headpiece is in the open conformation with the swung-out hybrid domain. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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