Mutagenesis studies of the β i domain metal ion binding sites on integrin αvβ3 ligand binding affinity

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Three divalent cation binding sites in the integrin β I domain have been shown to regulate ligand binding and adhesion. However, the degree of ligand binding and adhesion varies among integrins. The αLβ2 and α4β7 integrins show an increase in ligand binding affinity and adhesion when one of their ADMIDAS (adjacent to MIDAS, or the metal ion-dependent adhesion site) residues is mutated. By contrast, the α2β1, α5β1, and αIIbβ3 integrins show a decrease in binding affinity and adhesion when their ADMIDAS is mutated. Our study here indicated that integrin αVβ3 had lower affinity when the ADMIDAS was mutated. By comparing the primary sequences of these integrin subunits, we propose that one residue associated with the MIDAS (β3 Ala 252) may account for these differences. In the β1 integrin subunit, the corresponding residue is also Ala, whereas in both β2 and β7 integrin subunits, it is Asp. We mutated the β3 residue Ala 252 to Asp and combined this mutant with mutations of one or two ADMIDAS residues. The mutant A252D showed reduced ligand binding affinity and adhesion. The ligand binding affinity and adhesion were increased when this A252D mutant was paired with mutations of one ADMIDAS residue. But when paired with mutations of two ADMIDAS residues the mutant nearly abolished ligand-binding ability, which was restored by the activating glycosylation mutation. Our study suggests that the variation of this residue contributes to the different ligand binding affinities and adhesion abilities among different integrin families. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

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