Alu elements and hominid phylogenetics
Alu elements have inserted in primate genomes throughout the evolution of the order. One particular Alu lineage (Ye) began amplifying relatively early in hominid evolution and continued propagating at a low level as many of its members are found in a variety of hominid genomes. This study represents the first conclusive application of short interspersed elements, which are considered nearly homoplasy-free, to elucidate the phylogeny of hominids. Phylogenetic analysis of Alu Ye5 elements and elements from several other subfamilies reveals high levels of support for monophyly of Hominidae, tribe Hominini and subtribe Hominina. Here we present the strongest evidence reported to date for a sister relationship between humans and chimpanzees while clearly distinguishing the chimpanzee and human lineages.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Salem, A., Ray, D., Xing, J., Callinan, P., Myers, J., Hedges, D., Garber, R., Witherspoon, D., Jorde, L., & Batzer, M. (2003). Alu elements and hominid phylogenetics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100 (22), 12787-12791. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2133766100