Document Type


Publication Date



Extracellular immune responses to ascomycete and oomycete pathogens in Arabidopsis are dependent on vesicle-associated secretion mediated by the SNARE proteins PEN1 syntaxin, SNAP33 and endomembrane-resident VAMP721/722. Continuous movement of functional GFP-VAMP722 to and from the plasma membrane in non-stimulated cells reflects the second proposed function of VAMP721/722 in constitutive secretion during plant growth and development. Application of the bacterium-derived elicitor flg22 stabilizes VAMP721/722 that are otherwise constitutively degraded via the 26S proteasome pathway. Depletion of VAMP721/722 levels by reducing VAMP721/722 gene dosage enhances flg22-induced seedling growth inhibition in spite of elevated VAMP721/722 abundance. We therefore propose that plants prioritize the deployment of the corresponding secretory pathway for defense over plant growth. Interstingly, VAMP721/722 specifically interact in vitro and in vivo with the plasma membrane syntaxin SYP132 that is required for plant growth and resistance to bacteria. This suggests that the plant growth/immunity-involved VAMP721/722 form SNARE complexes with multiple plasma membrane syntaxins to discharge cue-dependent cargo molecules.

Publication Source (Journal or Book title)

Molecules and cells

First Page


Last Page