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© 2020 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Endoreplication, also known as endoreduplication, is a modified cell cycle in which DNA is replicated without subsequent cell division. Endoreplication plays important roles in both normal plant development and in stress responses. The SIAMESE (SIM) gene of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that plays a central role in establishing endoreplication, and is the founding member of the SIAMESE-RELATED (SMR) family of plant-specific CDK inhibitor genes. However, there has been conflicting evidence regarding which specific cyclin/CDK complexes are inhibited by SIM in vivo. In this work, we use genetic evidence to show that SIM likely inhibits both CDKA;1- A nd CDKB1-containing CDK complexes in vivo, thus promoting endoreplication in developing Arabidopsis trichomes. We also show that SIM interacts with CYCA2;3, a binding partner of CDKB1;1, via SIM motif A, which we previously identified as a CDK-binding motif. By contrast, SIM motif C, which has been indicated as a cyclin binding motif in other contexts, appears to be relatively unimportant for interaction between SIM and CYCA2;3. Together with earlier results, our work suggests that SIM and other SMRs likely have a multivalent interaction with CYC/CDK complexes.

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Plant Physiology

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