Title

Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution

Authors

Wesley C. Warren, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
La Deana W. Hillier, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
Jennifer A. Marshall Graves, The Australian National University
Ewan Birney, European Bioinformatics Institute
Chris P. Ponting, University of Oxford
Frank Grützner, The University of Adelaide
Katherine Belov, The University of Sydney
Webb Miller, Pennsylvania State University
Laura Clarke, Wellcome Sanger Institute
Asif T. Chinwalla, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
Shiaw Pyng Yang, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
Andreas Heger, University of Oxford
Devin P. Locke, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
Pat Miethke, The Australian National University
Paul D. Waters, The Australian National University
Frédéric Veyrunes, The Australian National University
Lucinda Fulton, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
Bob Fulton, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
Tina Graves, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
John Wallis, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
Xose S. Puente, Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias
Carlos López-Otín, Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias
Gonzalo R. Ordóñez, Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias
Evan E. Eichler, University of Washington, Seattle
Lin Chen, University of Washington, Seattle
Ze Cheng, University of Washington, Seattle
Janine E. Deakin, The Australian National University
Amber Alsop, The Australian National University
Katherine Thompson, The Australian National University
Patrick Kirby, The Australian National University
Anthony T. Papenfuss, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research
Matthew J. Wakefield, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research
Tsviya Olender, Weizmann Institute of Science Israel
Doron Lancet, Weizmann Institute of Science Israel

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

5-8-2008

Abstract

We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation. ©2008 Nature Publishing Group.

Publication Source (Journal or Book title)

Nature

First Page

175

Last Page

183

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