Post-diapause gemmules of the freshwater sponge Eunapius fragilis remained quiescent when maintained at 5°C. Germination occurred within 48 to 72 h following warming to 20°-23°C, culminating with the emergence of a new sponge from the collagenous capsule. Both heat dissipation and oxygen consumption climbed steadily during germination and eventually reached 600% of the starting values. By comparison, energy flow was much lower over the same period of time in diapausing gemmules, clearly demonstrating metabolic depression during diapause. The calorimetric:respirometric (CR) ratio increased significantly from -354 kJ/mol O2 to -541 kJ/mol O2 between hours 3.5 and 56.5 of germination, with an average value across this period of about -495 kJ/mol O2. The low CR ratio at hour 12.5 (-374 ± 21; ± 1 SE, n = 3) was statistically below the oxycaloric equivalent, which suggests that gemmules may have experienced hypoxia during the more than 3 months of storage at 5°C prior to experiments. The increase in metabolism during germination could be blocked by perfusing the gemmules with nitrogen- saturated medium (nominally oxygen free). Developing gemmules were able to survive oxygen limitation for several hours at least; during that time energy flow was depressed to 6% of normoxic values. During germination, the range of values was 3.5 to 4.0 nmol/mg protein for ATP, 0.2 to 0.4 nmol/mg protein for ADP, and 0.5 to 0.8 nmol/mg protein for AMP. Because ATP was high even before gemmules were warmed to room temperature, it is unlikely that levels were severely compromised during the diapause condition.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Loomis, S., Hand, S., & Fell, P. (1996). Metabolism of gemmules from the freshwater sponge Eunapius fragilis during diapause and post-diapause states. Biological Bulletin, 191 (3), 385-392. https://doi.org/10.2307/1543011